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An NorðumbroMersian Tonglearning
A Grammar of Northumbro-Mercian

1. BEGINNING (Introduction)

Rootscaperen ðes NorðvmbroMersiane (NM) tongs aren Noel Cvrry & Francis Smith.

Ðe name scows ðe pride af ðe Norð as an againcomer af ðe Goldene Tide before 1066.
               
Ðe grovnd af ðe tong doð bean for to riddan ðe nowlige Anglisce tong af Latinen worden and 
bildingen and ovtsteaddan ðese wið Olden Angliscen and/or nowligen Germanicen tongens 
worden/bildingen wheresoefer docanlig.

No one man scall ðis tong ownan and it alltide scall ðe belonging af ðe folc stayan.

Ovtspeacing and Boocstafing Wordensteading Steadðingworden and Ilcworden 
Worcworden Covntworden and Tide Farness, Bigness and Weight Oðer Lincen


2. OVTSPEACING AND BOOCSTAFING (Pronunciation and Spelling) Willst ðov an full ovtspeacinglearning ðis fowelen and wiðsovnderen ovres tonges, go ðov here. In NM aren alle fowelen and wiðsovnderen as in ði dayen af ovr forefaðeren ovtspocan, f.f. covgh, cnight, ðere a.s.o. Boocstafen aren as gescribed ovtgespocan, f.f. 'seemed' ovtspocan /seem-ed/. Ðe nowlige Anglisce ovtspeacing hereaf is also doable, but must ðen as 'seem'd' bean gescribed. Wiðsovnderen, ðat after an scort fowel comen, aren getwinned gescribed, safe when ðey at ðe end ðes words comen: f.f. to sittan, sat; ðe plan, ði plannen. Yet in artisticen scribingen mayen efen ðis last wiðsovnder getwinned bean: f.f. sad > sadd. In svch writingen may man also oðer funnigboocstafingen trian f.o. freedome, goode. Ðe anwending af big boocstafen for ðingworden, weecdayen a.s.o. is at ðe scribers will. NM, lice Anglisc, anwends an -s ending, ownerscip to scowan. Howefer is ðere in ovr tong no ' geneeded: f.f. Alfreds booc, NOT Alfred's booc. Herebeneað aren some grovndunlicenissen wið Anglisc boocstafing: - straight 'a' fowel oft oferpvt as 'ae' in NM, f.f. half > haelf, tan > taen. - c > s if ovtspocan /s/. - in NM anwenden we for ðe sovnd /k/ (as in 'cat')alltide ðe boocstafe 'c' f.f.: A:'kitten'> NM:'citten' Licewise anwenden we alltide ðe boocstafe 's', when ðe sovnd /s/ is (as in 'sight'). - licewise 'qu'-clvster > cw f.f. cween. - in handwriting so can 'f' see ovt as 'S' so long as ðere an strice ðereacross be. - ðe clvster 'dg' is as an Anglisce 'j' ovtgespocen. - ðe boocstafe 'j' is welsc and ðvs not angewended in ovr tong. Alle Angliscen worden wið an 'j' ðerein musten ðvs againsetted bean. In nonagainsteadcanligen worden lice 'jazz' scould man 'dg' instead af 'j' anwendan - ðe Anglisce boocstafe 'k' is in NM as 'c' gescribed. - ðe Anglisce wordendingclvster '-le' is in homeligen worden as '-el' or '-il' gescribed f.f. littel, cettil. Yet beware welscworden f.f. A:'cycle' NM:'twowheeler/twainwheeler' - mosttides scows an 'ph' ðat an word af strangefromness is, and ðvs againsteaded bean scovld. Oðerwise scovld it as 'f' gescribed bean. - ðe Anglisce clvster 'sh' is in NM as 'sc' gescribed. - 'th' to be writtan as ðe boocstafe ð (called eth). Ðerefore ðat ðis boocstafe oft hard on writingdescen to scriban is, can 'q' as an againstead anwended bean, as it vnanwended is, and seeð ovt lice eth when vpside-down too. - 'u' can by 'v' oferbetacan, as in dayen af yore (and as in ðis tonglearning!). - Anglisc 'v' is in NM as 'f' gescribed f.f. A:'vowel'>NM:'fowel'. Svch worden aren howefer oft wið an Anglisc 'v'-sovnd ovtspocen. Ðe boocstafe 'v' is nee an wiðsovnder in NM, tis raðer anoðer way af scribing ðe fowel 'u'. - worden, ðat wið 'w' starten, cannen also wiðout ðis 'w' gescribed bean, if it good ovtseeð f.o. worm > orm, Woden > Odin, word > ord - ðe clvster 'wh' can also as 'hw' gescribed bean, which its ovtspeacing liceneð - mosttides scows an 'x' ðat an word af strangefromness is, and ðvs againsteaded scovld bean. Oðerwise is it as 'chs' or 'cs' gescribed. - ði Angliscen wordendfasteningen –ly/-y aren in NM as –lig/-ig gescribed f.f. A:'fully' > NM:'fvllig' - ðe boocstafe 'z' is welsc and ðvs not in ovr tong anwended. Ðis boocstafe in Angliscen folcs- and landsnamen is in NM steadlig wið 's' gescribed. Alle oðeren Angliscen worden wið an 'z' ðerein musten againsetted bean.

3. WORDENSTEADING (Word Order)

NM wordensteading licens ðat af oðer Germanicen tongen more ðan Anglisc:
- in NM comeð ðe worcword fanlig in ðe twoðe stead, efen when it 
in Anglisc elsewhere comeð: ðvs 
'My friend speaceð good Anglisc' (In Anglisc too comeð ðe worcword twoð here) BVT
'Oft speaceð my friend good Anglisc'
- after ði helpworcworden (svch as cannan, mustan, mayan, willan, scouldan 
and wouldan) comeð ðe oðer worcword in its switchlessform (ð.i. ðe -an form)
and at ðe end ðes meaninges:
f.f. 'Ig can ðig seean'
- after ðat, who, if, when, before, while, whilst, ðough and alðough comen 
ði worcworden at ðe end ðes meaninges or meaningbittes:
f.o. 'Tis an statement by two provden Anglanderen đat đe tong alltide to đe folc 
scovld belongan.' or 'Tis an .... belongan scovld.'
- In dictligen scribingen can ðe ownerscipword after ðe ðingword coman:
f.f. boyen ðine, ðe cace my.


4. STEADÐINGWORDEN AND ILCWORDEN (Pronouns and Adjectives) Nom.on. Nom.mo. Acc.on. Acc.mo. Dat.on. Dat.mo. Gen.on Gen.mo. ig we mig vs me t'vs my/mine* ovr ðov ye ðig yov ðee yov ðy/ðine* yovr he hey hin hen him hem his heir sce scey her scen her scem her sceir it ðey it ðen it ðem its ðeir * f.f. my eye, mine eyen a.s.o. Relatifsteadðingworden followen ði samen rvlen, f.f. who/whon/whom/whose. Agreement: ðe man is big, ðe men aren big, bvt, an big man, bigen men, ðe/my bige man, ði/mine bigen men, an big scip, bigen scipen, ðe/my bige scip, ði/mine bigen scipen. M.W. 'Ðe' hað ðe moreligform 'ði': f.f. ðe harde homeworc, ði harden homeworcen.

5. WORCWORDEN (Verbs)

Ðere aren two classen af worcword: weac and strong.

Weacworcworden(f.f.'to worcan')
 Nowtide
  Onelig                   Morelig
  ig worce                 we worcen
  ðov worcest              ye worcen
  he worcs or worceð       hey worcen
  sce worcs or worceð      scey worcen
  it worcs or worceð       ðey worcen

 Pasttide
  worcan,   worced(on. or mo.),   geworced
  fvccan,   fvcced,   gefvcced 

 Orderen
  worce!(on.) worcvn!(mo.)
  cille hin!(on.) cillvn hin!(mo.)

Strongworcworden followen ði standard 21st yearhvndreden vnlicenessen, 
and ði followingen trenden too:

  'to bean'                           'to hafan'
  Onelig           Morelig            Onelig           Morelig 
  ig am            we aren            ig hafe          we hafen
  ðov art          ye aren            ðov hast         ye hafen
  he/sce/it is     ðey/scey/hey aren  he/sce/it has or hað    ðey/hey hafen 

 Pasttide
  eatan,    ate(on.)/aten(mo.),      geeaten    
  drifan,   drofe/drofen,    gedriffen
  bvyan,    bovght/bovghten,   gebovght
  macan,    made/maden,     gemade

 Orderen
  eat!(on.) eatvn!(mo.)
  bvy!(on.) bvyvn!(mo.)

Weac- and Strongworcworden:                

 Switchlessform
  Ðere gifes two formen: 'to goe, to eate' and 'goan, eatan.'
  Yet ðovgh ðe -e form cannot wiðovt 'to' anwended bean,
  can man after 'to' eiðer form anwendan: f.f. to goe or to goan,
  but wiðovt 'to' only goan.

 Comingtide:  scallan + inf.
  ig scall            we scallen
  ðov scalt           ye scallen
  he/sce/it scall     ðey/scey/hey scallen*

 Orderen
  'Be'form order ofter anwended to bean f.f. go! > be/beun gone!

NM has deponentworcworden, as in ði Scandinafianen tongen: f.f. 'hopans, ig hopes'. 
Svch worcworden hafen merelig an -s on ðe end ðes abofegelisted formen.


6. RECCONINGWORDEN AND TIDE (Numbers and Time)

Recconingworden
 Recconinggrovndworden:
  none or nought(NOT zero!)
  one
  two
  ðree
  fovr
  fife
  six or sex
  sefen
  eight
  nine 
  ten or teen
  elefen
  twelfe or twelf
  ðirteen a.s.o.
  ...
  twent(e)y
  oneandtwentey
  twoandtwentey a.s.o.
  ...
  onehundred
  onehundredandone
  ...
  twohundreden
  twohundredenandone
  ...
  oneðovsand
  onehundredðovsand
  oneðovðovsand

 Rancrecconingworden:
  first
  oðer or twoð
  ðird
  fovrð
  fifð
  sixð or sexð a.s.o.

Tide
  an time = an hour
  an timehalf = half an hour
  an timefovrð = a quarter of an hour
  an timebit = a minute
  an timebittling = a second
  an yearten = a decade
  an yearfifty = fifty years
  an yearhvndred = a century
  an yearðovsand = a millenium

Dayen
  Moonsday
  Tiwsday (dictlig: Tyrsday)
  Wodensday (dictlig: Odinsday)
  Ðunorsday (dictlig: Ðorsday) 
  Friggsday 
  Locisday (East.NM sometides: Laugisday)
  Svnsday 

Monðen
  Homedalesmonað
  Hodsmonað
  Baldersmonað
  Freyasmonað
  Idunsmonað
  Sifsmonað
  Offasmonað
  Alfredsmonað
  Ninemonað
  Teenmonað
  Elfemonað
  Twelfemonað

Willst ðov cennan, whence ði monð- and daynamen came, goest ðov here.


7. FARNESS, BIGNESS AND WEIGHT (Distance, Size and Weight) Britisc (Imperial) Ðese aren as in Anglisc, safe: an ðovsandstep = a mile an twelfðweight = an ounce an field = an acre Longyardisc (Metric) hundredð- = centi- ðovsandð- = milli- ðov- = kilo- fovrsame- = square bochs- = cubic an longyard = a metre an twopint = a litre an newweight = a gram an twopovnd = a kilogram (also qovnewweight) an newfield = a hectare
8. OÐER (Miscellaneous) Norðvmbro-Mersian followeð ði allmenligen rvlen ðis Germanicen tongen: 'If in doubt, be a Kraut'. Moreligform for ðingworden Ðe Anglisce moreligending -s becomeð -en in NM f.f. A: two hands, NM: two handen Articelen - 'Alltide 'an', nee 'a'. - 'Ðe' has ðe moreligform 'ði'. Ownerscip fall and Anglisc 'of the' - Ðe Anglisce 'of the' is nee as 'af ðe/af ði' into NM ofergeput. Steadlig is ðe ownerscip fall angewended: 'the height of the man' > 'ðe height ðes mans' (=ðe mans height) 'on the end of the above-listed forms' > 'on ðe end ðes abofegelisted formen.' In ðe onelig tacen boð ðe articel and substantife an -s, in ðe morelig only ðe articel. Comingtidesplannen - Comingtidesplannen aren in ði followingen wayen gescown: for (to) ðat…might + switchlessform so (to) ðat…might + switchlessform in so ðat…might + switchlessform. Bigger anwending In NM aren ði followingen micel more ðan in Anglisc angewended: - Worden/wordenparten/wordengruppen: whomsoefer, in fvrðering, moreofer, here-, be- , ðere-, Anglisce swearworden (ðese aren fanlig eferyday worden in NM!!) - Ascingformeden statemeaningen: f.f. 'Were Ig ðov...' 'If i were you...'; 'Goest ðov into town, bvyest me an apple art ðov nice.' 'If you go into town, please buy me an apple.' - Ðe factlessform is as in nowlig Anglisc anwended, bvt more so: f.f. 'efen if it be raining, …' a.s.o. Topp Ovtspeacing and Boocstafing Wordensteading Steadsubstantifen and Bildworden Worcworden Covntworden and Tide Farness, Bigness and Weight Oðer


Ðere gifes now men, who ði worcingen ovres tonges vnderstanden!

Headwebside
(Main page)
Wordenbooc
(Dictionary)
Wordenscaping
(Guide to Word Formation)
Outspeacingslearning
(Pronunciation Guide)